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And notice these other spellings, and transcribe the words 1. Transcribe these names 1.

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Take the word false, for instance; you will hear both 1. Transcribe these words in both pronunciations 1.

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It is longer and the tongue position is slightly higher, or closer to the roof of the mouth. Compare these and transcribe 1. Diphthongs The diphthongs are long vowels as has already been explained in which there is a noticeable movement of the tongue. These three directions are called front closing, back closing and centring, respectively. There are three front closing diphthongs in Southern English Standard Pronunciation; they occur in the following words and name: 1. In the first one, lake, the tongue does not move a great deal, but you can nevertheless feel the movement as you imitate the vowel sound by itself a.

And the second part [i] indicates the position of the tongue at the end of the diphthongal movement.

Transcribing the Sound of English

Say the vowel slowly, to give yourself time to feel the movement of the tongue: 1. In the North of England, Scotland and Wales, an alternative standard pronunciation is heard, in which there is no diphthongal movement at all, but a long monophthong just like the vowel in the German word Tee, French th, etc. Look back at pp. Listen to it in the following few examples: 1.

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This alternative is taken up again in Chapter 5. The symbol has already been mentioned on p. Now you can transcribe 1. In this case, not only does the tongue move, but the lips change shape too. The first one, as in 1. Listen to the two pronunciations of the word old: the standard 1. Transcribe the two versions of the following words 1. In addition to this variation in SESP, a quite different sound to this vowel is heard in Northern English, Scottish and Welsh standard pronunciations and sounds like the long monophthong in the French word chaud hot , German so, Welsh ln.

Listen to the following few examples 1. Thus, Listen out for it! This is now so widespread that within a generation it may well be accepted as the standard SESP form.

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Listen to the difference between the traditional diphthong and this modern variation in the word lair 1. Here are some more examples; transcribe them in both ways 1. However, here too there is a very strong tendency among the younger generation of SESP speakers to replace this diphthong entirely mainly by substituting it with the long monophthong 1. Similarly the word sure is now much more The weak vowels And, finally, the weak vowels.

The weak vowels are confined to weak, unstressed, syllables. All the short and long vowels introduced already are all strong vowels and all occur in strong, stressed, syllables. These three weak vowels resemble the three finishing points of the three kinds of English diphthongs; they are pronounced with the tongue in either a front close position, a back close position, or a central position. The first one occurs at the end of a word like 1.

Thus coffee is transcribed as It also occurs in the middle of words before a vowel, as in 1.

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Thirdly, it occurs in the weak forms of words like he, we, me, be, that is, when these words are unstressed, e. Examples with unstressed to are to act; to own; to everyone. It is produced with the tongue in a central position and sounds rather like a hesitation: 1. It is often called the neutral vowel because the tongue requires no muscular effort as it does to produce front and back vowels and close and open vowels; it is like neutral gear. Like the other weak vowels, it is confined in Southern English Standard Pronunciation to unstressed syllables, as in the final syllables of 1.

The neutral vowel also occurs in the following suffixes 1. African, Indian, Italian, Zambian porous, parlous, raucous, serious helpless, fearless, hapless, careless darkness, weakness, sadness, happiness. It also occurs as the weak vowel represented by a variety of vowel letters in unstressed syllables: take for instance banana.

Transcribe the names 1. We have now covered the whole vowel system of English! Summary The total inventory in the vowel system of Southern English Standard pronunciation can be displayed in the following set of charts. The approximate position of the tongue for each vowel is shown by indicating relative frontness to the left, backness to the right, and relative closeness and openness on the vertical axis.

In most standard accents of English, there are twenty-four consonants, and they are grouped into five types: plosives, nasals, fricatives, affricates and approximants. Plosives Plosives are usually introduced first because the kind of constriction in the mouth by which they are produced is total.

Transcribe these words 2. Nasals Nasals have the same constriction as plosives except that air is allowed to pass through the nose, but not through the mouth. Fricatives Fricatives have a looser constriction in the mouth, which allows friction to be produced at the point of contact. Compare and transcribe 2.

The two words thin and then illustrate the two; in 2. Compare the two and notice the difference in voicing: 2. Listen and transcribe: 2.

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Transcribe it. Compare the words 2. People vary: transcribe both possibilities: 2. Compare teeth and to teethe. But notice that the words lathe and scythe are both nouns and verbs but are pronounced the same, and the word smooth is both an adjective and a verb. Transcribe them 2. Transcribe the following homophones 2.

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Notice the two pronunciations of the homographs close and house: 2. Transcribe all three pairs 2.

The fourth pair have the constriction between the body of the tongue and the forward part of the roof of the mouth, immediately behind the teeth ridge post-alveolar; or traditionally, palato-alveolar. The IPA symbol for the These two new symbols are often called 2. Transcribe 2. This is the least common consonant in English and is confined to the kind of contexts found in these words and in words of French origin. Transcribe Notice, too, how people vary in their pronunciation of these words: Asia and version.