Manual Computer Assisted Language Learning

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The participants were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and two control ones. The two experimental groups underwent the same procedures in receiving treatment, while the control groups did not receive any treatment.


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Initially, all groups participated in pre-tests. The students in the experimental groups were exposed to the treatments for eight sessions, which included the teaching of word lists selected from the students' books using computers. These words were taught to the experimental groups using 'Vocaboly', while the control groups were taught using the traditional method of vocabulary teaching.

Finally, all groups participated in post-tests. Because of all this, CMC has had the most impact on language teaching. In chat rooms, the purpose is basically just to talk, so u,sually all participants see is a blank screen with words on it. RPG programs, however, participants appear on the screen usually as simple animated figures and interact with landscapes and objects as well as text they, the computer or other participants wrote. Participation in an RPG mimics many real-world communicative situations, such as buying and selling as well as a few not-so-real ones such as casting spells.

MUDs are purely textual environments, forcing the participant to imagine the visual components and MOOs have some visual elements, however very simple and not animated.

Conference

MOOs have been converted in toeducation into vthe irtual classroom and office space where teachers and students can interact one-on-one or all together as a class in real -ime. At first, both could be done only through text. The computer would analyze errors and give feedback. In the communicative approach, the focus is on using the language rather than analysis of the language, teaching grammar implicitly.

It also allowed for originality and flexibility in student output of language. In this phase, however, computers provided context for students to use the language, such as asking for directions to a place. However, criticisms of this approach include using the computer in an ad hoc and disconnected manner for more marginal rather than the central aims of language teaching. It will usually taught skills such as reading and listening in a compartmentalized way, even if not in a drill fashion. It also coincides with the development of multimedia technology providing text, graphics, sound and animation as well as computer-mediated communication.

CALL in this period saw a definitive shift of use of computer for drill and tutorial purposes computer as a finite authoritative base for a specific task to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom and reorganizing instruction. In multimedia programs, listening is combined with seeing, just like in the real world. Students also control the pace and the path of the interaction.

How Is CALL Used?

Interaction is in the foreground but many CALL programs also provide links to explanations simultaneously. More recent research in CALL has favored a learner-centered exploratative approach, where students are encouraged to try different possible solutions to a problem, for example the use of concordance programs in the language classroom. This approach is also described as data-driven learning. CALL and computational linguistics are separate but somewhat interdependent fields of study. Computational linguistics takes the principles of theoretical linguistics with the aim of characterizing a language with computational applications in mind.

A very simple example of computers understanding natural language in relation to second language learning is vocabulary drill exercises. The computer prompts the learner with a word on either the L1 or target language and the student responds with the corresponding word. On a superficial level, the core issue for humans and computers using language is the same; finding the best match between a given speech sound and it corresponding word string, then generating the correct and appropriate response.


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However, humans and machines process speech in fundamentally different ways. Humans use complex cognitive processes, taking into account variables such as social situations and rules while speech for a computer is simply a series of digital values to generate and parse language. Computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers now think about the implications. Technology brings about changes in the teaching methodologies of foreign language unless they are used simply to automate fill-in-the-gap exercises.

Others include constructivism , whole language theory and sociocultural theory although they are not exclusively theories of language learning. Whole language theory postulates that language learning either native or second language moves from the whole to the part; rather than building sub-skills like grammar to lead toward higher abilities like reading comprehension, whole language insists the opposite is the way we really learn to use language.

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Students learn grammar and other sub-skills by making intelligent guesses bases on the input they have experienced. It also promotes that the four skills reading, writing, listening and speaking are interrelated. What most of these approaches have in common is taking the central focus away from the teacher as conveyer of knowledge to giving students learning experiences that are as realistic as possible where they play a central role.

Also, these approaches tend to emphasize fluency over accuracy to allow students to take risks in using more student-centered activities and to cooperate, rather than compete.

Although the integration of CALL into a foreign language program can lead to great anxiety among language teachers, [2] researchers consistently claim that CALL changes, sometimes radically, the role of the teacher but does not eliminate the need for a teacher altogether. Teachers should be familiar enough with the resources to be used to anticipate technical problems and limitations. Not only are they needed during the initial learning curve, they are needed to conduct review sessions to reinforce what was learned.

Encouraging students to participate and offering praise are deemed important by students. Students, too, need to adjust their expectations of their participation in the class in order to use CALL effectively. Rather than passively absorbing information, learners must negotiate meaning and assimilate new information through interaction and collaboration with someone other than the teacher, be that person a classmate or someone outside of the classroom entirely.

Learners must also learn to interpret new information and experiences on their own terms. This will raise their self-esteem and their knowledge will be improving. If students are performing collaborative project they will do their best to perform it within set time limits. Most report significant gains in reading and listening and most CALL programs are geared toward these receptive skills because of the current state of computer technology. However, most reading and listening software is based on drills.

CALL (computer assisted language learning)

However, using current CALL technology, even with it current limitations, for the development of speaking abilities has gained much attention. This is true even if the chat is purely textual. The use of videoconferencing give not only immediacy when communicating with a real person but also visual cues, such as facial expressions, making such communication more authentic. The first is pronunciation training. Learners read sentences on the screen and the computer gives feedback as to the accuracy of the utterance, usually in the form of visual sound waves.

Generally speaking, the use of technology inside or outside the classroom tends to make the class more interesting. However, certain design issues affect just how interesting the particular tool creates motivation. Others include having animate objects on the screen, providing practice activities that incorporate challenges and curiosity and providing a context real-world or fantasy that is not directly language-oriented.